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Purushartha JournalAbstract of Published Papers in Purshartha Journal
Spirituality and the Role of Ego: Insights for Management
Sandeep Singh, Associate Professor, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi

Spirituality has been explained in numerous ways since ages. In this paper the ego has been related to 'I Consciousness' and in this context the role of ego in spirituality has been discussed. It is strongly emphasized that it is the ego process which is the biggest barrier to spirituality and the spiritual state is basically the state where one gets rid of ego and achieves an orderly state of mind thereby showing morality naturally and not in the forced manner. Ego in the human consciousness can do lot of damage and there has been lot of historical evidences where this ego process has led to unwanted results in the long term to the organizations and individuals. This paper aims at explaining the spirituality from the ego perspective and then connecting it with the management for better understanding of role of ego in the human behaviour and decision making. It needs to be mentioned that this paper is influenced by the thoughts of Prof. P.Krishna expressed during the conference on 'Spirituality and Ethics in Management' held at School of Management Sciences, Varanasi in October, 2010.
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Modern Management Through Ancient Indian Wisdom: Towards a More Sustainable Paradigm
Anindo Bhattacharjee, Lecturer, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi

The paper attempts to establish the relevance of the teachings of Ancient Indian scriptures like Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, Manu-smriti, Arthashastra, etc in the practice of Modern Management. In this paper, we will see that though Drucker's modern management paradigms like MBO are very ideal theoretically and can be derived from the ethical and spiritual frameworks of ancient Indian ethos however, in practice, companies are struggling to implement these frameworks effectively because they are still not aligned to the teachings of ancient Indian scriptures. Also, through the same body of knowledge derived from ancient Indian scriptures, we will try to understand the reasons behind individual decision-making failures ultimately leading to institutional failures and in the process would look forward towards integrating some elements into the existing frameworks to create a more sustainable management paradigm. In this regard, I have created a model which depicts a 6- fold path of "Jnan" or Knowledge through which we can not only better manage on an individual as well as institutional and global level, but also better able to contribute towards restoring World peace and uniform economic order through spiritual congruence.
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America: Business ,Values and Ethics
Avinash Chandra Supkar, Sr.Lecturer, SMS, Varanasi
Mohd. Wamique Hisam, Reader, SMS, Varanasi
Rishi Raman Singh, Sr. Lecturer, SMS, Varanasi

American business is in turmoil in recent times. But the fact remains that America has been the country which has achieved huge success in business activities in the past and has been the prime driving force of the world economy. This paper does a brief analysis of history of business in America and the values which America adopted and followed which helped the cause of American business in the past. Brief reasoning has also been done in the paper for finding out the cause of the present crisis but that is not the main theme of the paper. Further, the paper also covers the developments that have taken place in America in the field of business ethics.
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Vision and Leadershi p in Organizations: An Insight with Indian Perspective
Sarvesh Satija, Department of Management, Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS) Pilani Campus

Leadership and Management principles are imperative in all organizations where a group of people assemble for a common purpose, adopt common policies and practices, plan, organize, manage the resources and work in a team towards organizational goals. Most of the organizations work on the western management concepts of vision, leadership, motivation, decision making and planning, which explicitly find their basis in Indian Vedanta like the Bhagavad Gita. Written thousands of years ago, the Bhagavad Gita is not simply a fountain of wisdom for philosophers. It reveals several secrets of vision, leadership and the path to managerial success. It enlightens us on aspects of self-management and selfdevelopment by providing guidance to resolve 'conflict', 'poor productivity', 'absence of motivation' and so on which are in fact common plagues in enterprises across the globe. The Indian Vedanta is equal, if not superior, to management texts which heavily advocate western management concepts. There is, however, one major difference in the approach followed. While western management thought deals with problems at an extrinsic and peripheral level, the Bhagavad Gita tackles the same issues from the subliminal level of human psyche. It helps us to understand ourselves and the world. It advocates that once the basic thought process of man is improved, it will automatically enhance the quality of his actions, and consequently, their results. Through this study, we aim to gain deep understanding and insights into management concepts of vision and leadership with broader Indian perspective.
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Environmental Ethics and Integrating Sustainability into Management Education
Ashraf Imam, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, Aligarh Muslim University
Mohd Ashraf Ali, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Aligarh Muslim University
M N Zadeh, MS.c Dairy Economic (Final)-N.D.R.I, Karnal

The integration of sustainability and environmental ethics into management education has improved in the past decade and these concepts are adopted by management schools. Business schools have integrated and communicated social, economic and ecological sustainability in their educational programmes, research and their organizational practices and processes. This is partly a response to external pressure, as societal concerns about sustainability grow and businesses have made greater efforts to green their processes and products. But it is also a response to internal pressure from faculty who has focused their research on the intersection of business and the natural environment. Academic administrators such as deans can encourage this integration in a number of ways. Business schools have already made commitments to contributing to sustainability education nowadays. This paper examined the impact of a procedure implemented and used at management colleges to promote integration of the concept of sustainability and environment ethics into courses. The results of this paper after study indicated that this procedure can indeed stimulate faculty members to integrate sustainable development in their courses. It is clear that the reported changes in courses were also influenced by other factors such as the increased general awareness of environmental issues. It then identifies some key enabling factors and barriers to successful integration of sustainability themes into the management education.
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Spirituality and Health: A Psychological Inquiry
Purnima Awasthi, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, B.H.U., Varanasi.

In recent years spirituality has emerged as a central focus in the field of health sciences. A strong body of studies bring out the potential of spirituality/religiosity to promote and maintain physical and mental health and ameliorate the deleterious effects of psychosocial stress on health. Rresearchers and clinicians now believe in the important connection of spirituality with health and wellness of an individual's life. Researches in the area of behavioral medicine have also shown that the spirituality generates insightful effects on the bodily conditions. Studies indicate that enhancement of one's spirituality affect medical and health condition in terms of positive outcomes of patients' health care. The present review deals the theoretical as well as empirical findings that include the influence of spirituality on health and well-being and its significance for patients suffering from various health problems. The findings indicate that spiritual need in medical care may create great encouraging results on a patient's health and well-being.
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The Interplay of Leadership , Power and Spirituality
Rajesh Kumar Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, RGSC, Barkachha, BHU
Anand Vikram Singh, Research Scholar, FMS, BHU

Leadership and power are linked. Both leadership and power have different dimensions attached to it which affect each other. The dyadic relationship could be complex for the person who is in leadership position or is in the process towards leadership. Spirituality which is no doubt an independent variable from the individual angle could have significant effect on the dyadic relationship of leadership and power. If understood properly the interplay of leadership, power, and spirituality many concepts related to ethical or unethical leadership could be cleared. This paper is an effort to study this triadic interaction to understand the reasons for leaders to be bad, good, great, or legendary. The stance taken in this paper is that it is the cultivation and demonstration of spiritual values that makes the difference. Some of the philosophical concepts from ancient Indian wisdom are also used in this paper to bring more relevance.
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A Gandhian Concept Towards "Conflict Resolution & Peace"
Hemlata Gandhi, District Project Coordinator, Jhalawar, Rajasthan
Nayan Prakash Gandhi, Managing Director, Gandhi Social Welfare Foundation, Jhalawar, Rajasthan
B.K.Vashishtha, Academic Head, Poona School of Business, Pune

Mahatama Gandhi has given so much to the present society through his vision and thoughts. Timeless wisdom which Mahatama Gandhi possessed and gave to the modern world has to be treasured. This paper covers one aspect of our life and that is conflict resolution and peace. This paper explores the detailed perspective of Gandhian philosophy on this aspect. It is proposed that his philosophy if followed could lead to effective resolution of conflict which lies within us and would help in self betterment and progress towards society development.

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Factors Affecting Ethical Decision Making in Corporate Setting
Amit Kishore Sinha, Sr. Lecturer, SMS, Varanasi
Sunit Kumar Mishra, Lecturer, SMS, Varanasi

Executives in corporate setting face many complex situations that demand ethical decision making from the perspective of society and organizations. Various factors work in the final outcome of ethical or unethical decision making of executives. This paper briefly examines some of the major factors that may affect the decision making of executives in organizations. The intensity of these factors may vary from individuals to individuals, organizations to organizations, and situation to situation.
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