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Purushartha JournalAbstract of Published Papers in Purshartha Journal
Spiritual Guidance in Achieving and Sustaining Organizational Excellence-Jain View
Shugan C Jain, Chairman, International School for Jain Studies, India & President- Parashvanath Vidhyapeeth, Varanasi

Jainism is one of the oldest religious traditions of India. It preaches and practices the work ethics to achieve one's objectives, be they to attain liberation or to be happy in worldly affairs and simultaneously first and then assist others (Live and help live or parasprograha jivanama). The focus is on attaining excellence (knowledge and bliss) at individual level so that one can attain the state of Bliss forever. The paper reviews the Jain doctrine and ethics in its philosophical and history literature to show that the same principles which are aimed at achieving individual excellence hold true to attain organizational excellence and sustain the same over a long period. The guiding principles of Jainism, be they metaphysical concepts like definition of reality; or the karma doctrine or its life style principles namely Ahinsa (non violence), Anekant (multiplicity of viewpoints), Aparigraha (limiting possessions or greed) and the ethics for householders in the form of five minor vows if practiced can make an organization excel and sustain the same for long periods. Jains are known to be highly educated, reasonably successful, non violent and peace loving people who are conscious of their social obligations as well and contribution to words the same with open heart. This to some extent supports the claims made and shown in the paper to some extent.
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Engines of Power: Managing in the Age of Connection
Subhash Durlabhji, Retired Professor, Northwestern State University, LA, USA

Only humans are universally endowed with a spiritual dimension, central to which is an eternal quest to end "existential" sorrow and unhappiness. Humans everywhere also consciously create and manage their collective enterprises. In this the central quest is material, to provide for the inevitable needs of existence itself, to ward off material sorrow and unhappiness. Management is thus a sister to spirituality in being uniquely and universally human. The connection between spirituality and management lies in the insight that both are centrally about empowerment. Spirituality is about conquering inner demons by the power of the mind. Management is about conquering the demons and demands of individual and collective existence itself, through the power of collective effort. This paper suggests that the turmoil of 2011 is evidence of a paradigm shift already underway, rather than a temporary "crisis" to be overcome by civic society. The emergence of this global consciousness flows from three engines of connectedness that have been building up steam for many generations and have now converged. The Material, Social and Spiritual domains that have hitherto been alienated from each other are in fact manifestations of One great cycle of energy and power. Integration in the sciences under the umbrella of evolution has revealed man's inseparability from Nature. The explosive growth of social connectivity of the last three decades has brought forth a radical democratization of the power of organization, a power till recently accessible only to the already powerful. Meanwhile large numbers of people everywhere are turning inwards in their thirst for spiritual comfort, as it becomes increasingly clear that neither fame nor fortune can deliver Peace. If organizations and institutions and laws are re-envisioned from the ground up under this overarching umbrella of empowerment, the moral bankruptcy of the status quo - in the private sphere and the public square -- could perhaps be halted, and reversed. The Tao begot one. One begot two. Two begot three. And three begot the ten thousand things.
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Effects of Spiritual Training on the Personal and Professional Growth of Employees - A Study in Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.
G. Jawahar, Deputy General Manager (HRD), Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.

The study intends to measure the effectiveness of spiritual training programmes conducted in POWERGRID. With the commitment and involvement of 9800 strong and professionally qualified human resources, POWERGRID is responsible for transmitting bulk power within and across the country. To enhance the personal and professional well being of its employees, a series of spiritual trainings were conducted in which 310 employees have participated across the organization during 2010 and 2011. After a gap of 8 to 12 months, a structured questionnaire containing various personal and professional development variables was circulated and data from 188 respondents were collected and analyzed. The results reveal that their health, behaviour and relationship with the colleagues were improved after attending the programme. The study results suggest that such programme should be extended to other employees as well. The paper concludes that spiritual training programmes plays a vital role and it is useful in two dimensions namely individual and organization, as both are complimentary to each other.
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Spirituality: One Answer for Many Problems
G.S.R. Murthy, Assistant General Manager, Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), Bhubaneswar

The last 4 years have been very troublesome to many people across the globe due to the so called Economic Downturn. This paper traces the root causes of the Economic Downturn to the Moral deficit of the people, which in turn is a direct outcome of lack of spirituality. People often mistake religion for spirituality. We have enough religion but we are short of spirituality. Lack of spirituality made us hedonistic, seeking pleasures at any cost and by any means. Our scriptures cautioned us against Avarice. But we listened to Gordon Gekko, the protagonist of the Hollywood movie Wall Street. His words "Greed is Good" became part of the public consciousness and he became a modern god of hedonism. Today most of the economies are bleeding. The world has been full of miseries, scandals, scams, revolutions, unrest. The world is witnessing another Economic downturn, which is going to be more violent, deeper and more pervasive. No cosmetic changes, bailouts will save the world. We need to go back to the roots. We need to realize that the root cause of all our miseries is Greed and erosion of values. To get over this sin and all its accomplices, we need to embrace and practice Spirituality. No doubt many of us go to temples, read scriptures but when we reach our workplaces all the spirituality is getting evaporated. We need to look into this. We need to maintain harmony in thought, word and deed. Once a spiritual should be always spiritual and everywhere spiritual. Today we have people with Low Values and High Skills; they are dangerous to the society. What we need is people High on values even if their Skills are low. Values are bedrock of intelligence. In the absence of values such intelligence becomes a burden on the society. Right values, essentially, are the off-shoots of spirituality. We need to embed spiritual values into our everyday life. We can't have double standards for personal life and public life. So, spirituality as a paradigm is the only solution to the Economic Downturn.
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Workplace Spirituality & Indian Ethos
Sandeep Gupta, GM & Head Corporate Affairs, TCG Lifesciences Limited N.K. Bishnoi, Associate Professor, Department of Management, Guru Jambheswar University of Science & Technology, Hissar Catherine Mathews, International business and organizational development consultant, Adelaide, Australia

Every civilization has a hidden code - a set of rules or principles that run through all its activities programming the behavior of millions and spreading across the planet like a wave. Driven by 'Spiritual Consciousness' this 21st century is witnessing a new wave of civilization whose last bastion is the workplace. This expression of 'spiritual consciousness' at the workplace is being called 'Workplace Spirituality and also 'Organizational Fourth Wave'. A review of the manifestation of 'workplace spirituality' reveals that businesses are using spirituality more as a tool to address motivation and productivity issues, rather than as a scaffold to bring about a cultural change in business thinking and behaviour. Restricting spirituality to only the metaphysical dimension of life is one common error that we make. The Indian philosophy is the oldest living tradition and its ethos centers around the dynamics of improving life. It is based on the principle of oneness in creation and integrates the spiritual and physical dimensions of human existence through righteousness (Dharma). Wealth creation is considered to be one of the main goals of life; hence, religion and business have always co-existed and are responsible for all human growth and evolution in the Indian tradition.
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Time for a New Avatar? Revitalising the Debate on Ethics for a New Global Vision
C. Suriyaprakash, Professor of Human Resources, Jansons School of Business, Karumathampatty, Coimbatore

"For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the wicked and for the establishment of righteousness, I am born in every age," says the Holy Geetha (Chinmayananda, 1996). The world is going through a series of crises unprecedented in the 'modern' times. The current scenario of economic and political instability in many regions questions many paradigms of development which were reigning supreme for decades: economic development over human development, growth based economy over sustainability, and capitalism over collectivism are to name a few. This paper argues how the erosion and compromises in organisational and professional ethics is an antecedent to these global phenomena and therefore raises the question if this is the time for a major revision of the fundamental premises upon which our world order is based that precipitated into the period of uncertainty we are in. In other words, is this the time for a new 'avatar' to set right the world order? Looking for answers to these questions in the Indian spiritual tradition, the paper espouses the relevance of the Vedantic philosophy to bring in a paradigm shift in the way ethics is discussed and followed in the business world. Ethics is a process and is of significance irrespective of the results (Suriyaprakash, 2011). Inspired by the six paradigm shifts proposed by de Graff and Levy (2011), the paper explores the need for a shift from the end result to the process of how business is managed. It propounds the need to integrate the spirit of dharma-karma paradigm into the ethical discussions in business in order to draw a new sustainable global vision. Drawing from the Upanishads, Geetha and Chanakya Sutra, the urgent need to revive and revitalize the Indian spiritual tradition in the global economic domain for such a global vision is emphasized. The paper also argues for the need to find a balance between the western and eastern economic paradigms that influence our organisational and professional ethics and not for substituting one with the other.
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Spirituality in Business and Other Synonyms A Fresh Look at Different Perspectives for its Application
Sree Raj. N. T., Assistant Manager, Standard Chartered Bank, Mumbai

Application of spirituality in business has remained a difficult terrain to explore. Not much has happened to influence the way we do business. Analyzing different perspectives at this stage would facilitate better comprehension and application. This paper is an effort to explore different perspectives of spirituality so that its in-depth understanding could lead to manifestation of spirituality in a better way in the individuals, teams and organizations related to business organizations.
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Virtues and Values for Organizational Sustainability
Anindo Bhattacharjee Lecturer, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi

This paper is an attempt to outline the importance of virtues and cultivating the right set of values in an organization so as to enhance its sustainability. In this pursuit, wisdom from Aristotle's Nichomachean ethics, the teachings of the Upanishads, and what the holy scriptures continuously reflect has been drawn about the importance of virtues. The importance of interconnectedness and transcendent values have also been explained in the context of organizations which have to continuously cope up with the uncertainties posed by a dynamic business environment for achieving sustainability. It has been suggested in the paper that when the virtues and values get hard-wired into the DNA of the organization then despite being in the midst of all the challenges organizations develop the capacity to move from generation to generation like an immortal soul.

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Ethical Issues of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Agri-Business
Sandeep Singh, Associate Professor, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi

Agriculture in India is the hub around which the wheel of Indian economy and society revolves. The growing population puts extra pressure on agriculture to sustain the food and nutritional requirements. The emergence of Biotechnology has given the hope to the agriculture scientists and policy makers for tackling the problem of food security in an efficient and effective manner. Any new or innovative technology also brings with itself the various ethical issues from the perspective of the society and economy. In recent times, hardly any technology has come which has created such a stir throughout the world from the ethical point of view. This technology has literally divided the world into two halves. One half staunchly favours the technology and the other half vehemently opposes it. The pertinent question that arises is that the problem lies with the technology itself or the problem lies with its use. This paper focuses on agriculture Biotechnology. The attempt is to find out the reasons for doubt over this technology and arguments that are given in favour and also the arguments given against the technology. Then the ethical issues related to Biotechnology and biotechnology business in agriculture is discussed and finally how Biotechnology can affect the farmers is discussed.

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A Study on Importance of Value Based Higher Education
P. Hari Krishna Associate Professor of Civil Engineering & Faculty advisor, Center for Value Education, NIT, Warangal, India

True test of civilization is not the infrastructural grandeur, technological wonders, or the enormous wealth generation but the quality of man it produces. The goal of all civilizations must be to research about the unchanging Supreme Truth, since all perishable goals chase by all human beings come to a naught at death. Modern civilization is a civilization that has brought about mind-boggling progress of science and technology, thus enriching the world and our lives. But the modern civilization is also a civilization that has made the 20th century the bloodiest century in human history. In the present day modern civilization, there is a great need for introducing the science of the Supreme Intelligence governing the universe, on a scientific basis in academic institutions around the world. Science must study the imperishable one, which is the eternal spirit soul. Human society including academicians and scientists cannot neglect this ancient spiritual science because it is directly or indirectly responsible in making the people to have balanced, meaningful, peaceful, cheerful and happy lives in the present day modern society.

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