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Purushartha Journal
Workplace Spirituality: A Review of Approaches to Conceptualization and Operationalization

K.P. Nandan Prabhu, Assistant Professor, School of Management, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University
L. L.R. Rodrigues, Professor & Head, Department of Humanities and Management, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University
K.P.V. Ramana Kumar, Professor & Dean, Faculty of Management Studies, SCSVMV University, Kanchipuram, Tamilnadu

Workplace Spirituality is a contextualized phenomenon that seeks to identify and build meaning, connectedness and the sense of transcendence at workplace. In this regard, this paper analyzes the different approaches of researchers to pin down the concept of workplace spirituality. Further, it probes into the diverse ways in which various research constructs of workplace spirituality have been operationalized. In this connection, discussion is made with regard to levels of analysis of the constructs of workplace spirituality. The concept of workplace spirituality is situated as a contextualized phenomenon of spirituality in general, even as religion is distinguished from spirituality. The originality of this paper lies in the comparative study that it makes of the constructs of workplace spirituality conceptualized and operationalized by prior research at individual, group and organizational levels. Further, this paper has critically reviewed the scales that have been developed to capture the construct of workplace spirituality in its varied conceptualizations. Furthermore, this paper has identified the elements of commonly agreed upon dimensions of workplace spirituality that are sought to be operationalized across different measurement scales of workplace spirituality. Accordingly, this paper has theoretically contributed towards the development of robust measurement scales of the sub-constructs of workplace spirituality.
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Traits of Transformational Leader: Durga Saptshati- A Case Study

Surya Rashmi Rawat Symbiosis Law School, Pune, Symbiosis International University

Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence people to achieve desired goals. Different studies in this area have propounded various theories ranging from Trait theory of leadership to behavioral approach
models to contingency models. Earlier people were of the opinion that individuals are born with leadership traits, either they are born leaders or are not. Then came a phase when people realized that these traits can be acquired too. But all these studies could not come up with any conclusive list of leadership traits. Various successful leaders may have similar traits but we are yet to come across the set of traits that every leader must possess. In nut shell we may say that, “which traits to acquire”, which specific traits make you a leader is still a question?

Now a day's increasingly, scholars are talking about transformational leadership as a tool to get better results in the organization. Transformational leaders influence the employee job satisfaction & morale in a positive manner. Responding to this requirement of industry, in this paper the researcher has made an attempt to identify the traits which a transformational leader must possess. The study is based on a descriptive analysis of Durga Saptashati - a Hindu religious text. The study arrived at a conclusive summary of the traits of a transformational leader. Study revealed that the transformational leader has to be perceived as a man with solutions rather than the man with problems.

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A Research Study on Jagadguru Adi Shankaracharya with Specific Reference to the Principles and Practices of Management and Relevance in Modern Times with Lessons to be Learnt for Managers/ CEOs
Bhavesh A. Kinkhabwala, Research Scholar, B.K. School of Business Management, Gujarat University

Jagadguru Adi Shankaracharya was born in 8th Century A.D. at village Kaladi situated on the banks of the Periyar River in Kerala, India. Many scholars of Sanskrit language, Indian history, Culture and ethos are of common opinion that Hindu religion would not have been in existence if Jagadguru Adi Shankaracharya would not have been lived / taken birth. He has been widely known as an incarnation of Lord Shiva. This paper attempts to study and develop an insight from the life, events, teachings, lineage and practices of “Jagadguru Shankaracharya” and co-relating the same to the contemporary concepts, practices of management discipline and chart out lessons to be learnt for the managers / CEOs.

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Examining Moderating Effects of Gender between Role Stress and Job Satisfaction among Software Employees
Shruti Traymbak Research Scholar, Department of Management, Birla Institute of Technology
Pranab Kumar Associate Professor, Department of Management, Birla Institute of Technology

A.N. Jha Professor, Department of Management, Birla Institute of Technology

Role stress has been extensively studied in organizational psychology and the present study focused on two types of role stress: role conflict and role ambiguity. The purpose of the study is to examine the moderating effect of gender in the relationship between role stress and job satisfaction for software professionals which had received little attention in Indian context. A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used to analyze the data which includes confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), path analysis and multi-group moderation analysis. The results of the study revealed that there was slight increase in negative effect of role conflict on job satisfaction and slight decrease in negative effect of role ambiguity on job satisfaction among female employees. In case of male there was no increase or decrease in negative effect of role conflict and role ambiguity on job satisfaction. This study found invariant moderation effect of gender on relationship between role stress (role conflict and role ambiguity) and job satisfaction. Research implications, suggestions for role stress management and scope for future research are provided.
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Humanistic Leadership, Organizational Culture and Corporate Citizenship Behaviour
Naveen Parameswar Amrita School of Business, Coimbatore, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University
Rajiv Prasad Amrita School of Business, Coimbatore, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University

Leadership plays a significant role in shaping an organization's culture. A new type of organization is emerging that aims at not only earning profit through its business, but also at contributing to the benefit and well being of the members of the society. These organizations are led by a new type of leader who is called a humanistic leader (Prasad, 2011). This paper looks at the importance of humanistic leadership style in shaping this new type of organization. We also look at these organizations using the lens of established frameworks such as the Corporate Social Responsibility pyramid developed by Buchholtz & Carroll. These organizations look at the well-being of all stakeholders including owners, vendors, customers, employees and other shareholders. These organizations behave like responsible corporate citizens and new emerging research suggests that these organizations are being rewarded by their customers, as well as the shareholders. This development will in turn create a new model of business which is based on win-win strategy for all the stakeholders of an organization. Many of these new class of leaders display higher order needs such as self-transcendence and self-actualization in the Maslow's schema of needs arranged in a hierarchical pyramid. This paper suggests that the research in the areas of individual motivation of leaders can be merged with research in the area of leadership and organizational culture to help understand this new emerging trend.

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Investigating the Influence of Spirituality, Environmental Concern and Ecological Knowledge on Consumers' Green Purchase Intention
Yatish Joshi Assistant Professor , GSMVNIET, Palwal

This study investigated the influence of spirituality, environmental concern and ecological knowledge on consumers green purchase intention. The sample was undergraduate students of the University of Delhi. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, this study found that spirituality, environmental concern and ecological knowledge significantly influenced consumers green purchase intention. Therefore, this study supports the idea that spirituality, environmental concern and ecological knowledge should correspond to a stronger desire to consume the pro-environmental product. Further, this research finding may help public policy makers in fostering green consumption and marketers in designing sustainable marketing strategies

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No One Can Serve Two Masters: A Contradictory Opinion in Case of Organizational Politics and Ethics
Akanksha Dubey Research Scholar, Department of Management Studies, ISM, Dhanbad
Mrinalini Pandey Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, ISM, Dhanbad

Organizational politics is seen as a process through which one tries to fulfill their goals without considering the well- being of others. The ways adopted for fulfillment of goals might be sanctioned or unsanctioned (Mintzberg, 1985). Ethics works as a foundation for the Organisation as it provides employees with a shared value system around which the intra organizational and inter organisation communication takes place. The aim of this research paper is to find out whether politics and ethics survives subsist together in an organization or not. An empirical study has been conducted to attain our objective. The study was conducted in Academic organisations. The idea behind selecting Academic organisation is that these institutions are considered as idle organizations where one learns morals, values and discipline. The outcome of this study shows that ethics and politics can be present together in an organisation.
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Role of Occupational Stress to the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Vivek Tiwari Assistant Professor, Department of Management & Humanities, National Institute of Technology,     Hamirpur, India
S. K. Singh Ex. Dean FMS, BHU, Institute of Management Studies, Banaras Hindu University, India

Stress, the word whenever strikes the mind is usually interpreted in negative terms though in practice stress as a variable can be a good motivator if present only to a certain level (eustress), but when it crosses that minimum required limit and turns into distress, it may cause an employee loose interest in the job and hence reduce the job satisfaction level and hence may result into a lesser commitment to organization. It may even become such a big de-motivator that can even reduce the energy and zeal of an employee to even work any further. Thus this study is an attempt in finding out the relationship that organizational commitment shares with job satisfaction and the impact that occupational stress has on the relationship.

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Stakeholders' Welfare and Arthashastra: Learning for Modern Business Management
 Rishi Manrai Symbiosis Centre for Information Technology, Symbiosis International University, Pune
Utkarsh Goel Symbiosis Centre for Information Technology, Symbiosis International University, Pune

The ancient scriptures of our civilization are sources of immense knowledge and Kautilya's Arthashastra is no exception. Teachings of Arthashastra which explains the politics and economics of governance was primarily written for the rulers and kings. Today's modern business can be compared to the ancient empires and the managers have to play a role similar to the kings. This study tries to highlight the learnings for modern business organization from the teachings of Arthashastra to ensure welfare of all stakeholders. The study specifically focuses on corporate governance, training and group dynamics, corporate social responsibility and value base management. The study further proposes a new SHASTRA model which models the teachings of Arthashastra and acts as a guideline for effective business management based on ancient wisdom. The proposed model if adopted by a business organization is expected to improve its performance without reducing its obligation towards the society.

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Conceptual Exploration of Leadership Phenomenon through 'Vedanta Model of Leadership’
 Datta S. Taware Research Scholar, S-VYASA University, Bangalore
 Sony Kumari Associate Professor, S-VYASA University, Bangalore
 K. B. Akhilesh Professor, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
 H. R. Nagendra Chancellor, S-VYASA University, Bangalore

This article is providing a conceptual model for development of leadership competencies. Considering leadership as a phenomenon of Complex Adaptive Systems comprising multiple components as leader, follower and context; authors explore 'Vedanta Model of Leadership' based on Philosophy of Advaita Vedanta by Adi Shankaracharya. Organisations are manifestations of a complex phenomenon which can be explained through triad concept of Self-People-Situations representing Brahman-Jiva-Prakruti model of Existence.

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