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Purushartha JournalAbstract of Published Papers in Purshartha Journal
New Age Business Ethics and Cleaner Business Culture – The Role of 'Spiritual Quotient'
V G Sarangan, Dean (HR & Training), Sri Chandrasekarendra Saraswathi Viswa Maha Vidyalaya (SCSVMV) University, Enathur, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu
Muthu Krishna V, MBA Student, IIIT Gwalior (ABV-IIITM) and Former Quality Consultant at Ford Technology Services India, Chennai
Ekambareswaran Jeyaraman, Lead IT Operations, Ford Technology Services India (FTSI), Chennai

An effective Business leadership is needed to focus on Spiritual Quotient as equal to the other facets of managerial commercials in the fast changing business dynamics. In a world filled with uncertainty, mad fervors, fuming materialistic pursuits, burning ambitious jealous and high pressure on task completions with least importance to values and ethics, morality focused management play the key role in getting global leaders back to the track of 'being humane'. Market driven economy is reliable only when it has accommodation in examples state the superior outcomes with integrated emotional, spiritual and intellectual quotients in Business Models. Unified intelligence, spirits, values, hopes, gratitude, ethics and intersection of loyalty scores, corporate social responsibility, corporate accountability and strategic governance in a successful business is at the spiritual consensus, far from the reach of pseudoscience-fantasies.

This paper discusses on the secular scope of value driven corporate with maximizing the business parameters and returns in a spiritual quotient managed work culture. Eastern world has always spoken very high on the performance oriented cleanliness and a gentle business where both the sides of transactions stay happy and profitable! Mad-raced capital economy has brought a greater importance on the process of reaching and implementing socio-spiritual values blended with philosophical genre to have more humane regulatory policies in improving the ethical culture of money-making and enhanced decision making skills of the corporate

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Using Spirituality and Meditation to Reinvent CSR Activities through Dana: Exploring the Potentials

Saumya Bera, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Rashmi Ranjan Behera, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Priyadarshi Patnaik, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Suhita Chopra Chatterjee, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Organized religion has been associated with generosity behaviour or dana since time immemorial. Dana in the Indian context implies giving for altruistic purposes without any expectations. However, religion is a much larger concept which includes many other dimensions such as precepts, prohibitions, world views and rituals which do not contribute significantly to dana. In this paper we propose that it is the element of spirituality (as a subset of most organized religions) that plays a key role in eliciting generosity. While the term 'spirituality' has a long history, its contemporary use separates it from religion per se and emphasizes a state of mind and an attitude. We feel that this state of mind, which often is a part of religious experience, and is well documented in almost all world religions, may play a vital role in inducing an attitude of altruism which is specific to certain actions – namely dana. It will be our attempt in this paper to bring out the relation between the three – spirituality, altruism and generosity – in order to suggest that they can play a vital role in contemporary organization practices for the betterment of society. Moreover, we will also attempt to link meditation to spirituality – as an induction process which often paves the way to spirituality – as a model that can work in modern organizational settings to benefit the employees, the organization, and finally the society. While changing the whole organizational philosophy may be too difficult – like Plato's attempt to make a philosopher king out of Dionysius II – it is possible to use organizations' CSR as an important platform where the underlying mechanism of generosity and philanthropy outlined above may be beneficially implemented. The paper will attempt to explore these potentials as well as risks in order to develop preliminary guidelines for spirituality-based CSR.

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Effect of Spirituality on Human Performance - A Myth or Reality?
K. Kalyanasundaram, Research Scholar, Amrita School of Business, Amrita University, Coimbatore
P. Balasubramanian, Associate Professor, Amrita School of Business, Amrita University, Coimbatore

There are many researches conducted in the area of factors influencing human performance in various industries. Many improvement projects using lean and six sigma techniques have been applied in the past to overcome the problem of human errors. Factors can be broadly classified into Individual and Organisational. The topic of human performance has been heavily researched in industries such as Nuclear, Aviation, Healthcare etc...Studies have been conducted depending upon the type of tasks considering Physical Quotient, Intelligent Quotient and Emotional Quotient. However, the effect of human task performance as a result of Spiritual Quotient is a very unique study and first of its kind. This paper aims to test if the ultimate knowledge of spiritual intelligence has any influence on the human
performance. A controlled experiment was conducted. The dependent variable is Accuracy of the transaction processed with independent factors as Gender and Spiritual Intelligence. 2 It was a 2 experiment, i.e. 2 factors (Gender and SQ) and 2 levels (male/female and high/low). 63 MBA students (41 males and 22 females) of a Business School were involved in this experiment. They were asked to fill up a 24 items questionnaire on Spiritual Intelligence. Later they were asked to perform a task to understand their performance. The task involved reading a passage and entering data both numeric and alphabetic into a standard template.The participants were given sufficient time as per the industrial standards just to simulate the work environment pressure. There were 59 fields of data entry and the performance was calculated by measuring the accuracy of data entry. That is, the ratio of number of fields entered correctly to the total number of fields to be entered. (defects per opportunity). The results show that human performance is significantly related to Spiritual Intelligence irrespective of the Gender.

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Human Values and Professional Ethics: A Critical Appraisal
Abhishek Gupta, Administrative-cum-Accounts Officer & Head of Office Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy (Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, Govt. of India), Kapurthala (Punjab), India

Everything that we see belongs to one of the four `orders' i.e. Material Order, Plant/Bio Order, Animal Order, Human (Knowledge) Order. Material order is the most abundant in nature and exists in the form of all the soil mixtures, metal and compounds, various gases, water and other liquids etc., Plant/Bio order exists as the smallest seeds to the plentiful grass, the various plants and trees and the all the vegetarian in the ocean. There are several cyclical processes that we can see in nature. The quantity of water on the surface of earth remains conserved by itself, no need for human intervention. Breeds of plants and animals are similarly self-regulated in their environment. This phenomenon is termed as selfregulation. These two characteristics namely, cyclical nature and self regulation provide us with some clues of harmony that is in nature. When we consider humans and animals, we can understand that they are as a coexistence of the Self (`I') and the Body. If we look at the body, we find that in its fundamental unit, there is a cell. The cell belongs to the plant/Bio order. As humans, each one of us also has desires that we pursue an ability to think and the ability to make choices. In this Desire, Thought and Selection, we exhibit more activities than any unit in the animal order. As a result, humans are in a separate order than animals. Thus, in human beings, `I' has the activities of Desiring, Thinking, and Selecting/ Tasting, with a possibility or need for Understanding and Realization. Only humans have the need to know and that is why it is called the Knowledge Order. This Knowledge, this right understanding is what we have been the process of self-verification in us, we have to start becoming more aware, and start exploring into the proposals at all four levels of our living.
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The Eightfold Path of Buddhism for an Effective & Credible Leadership
Sonal Shree, Assistant Professor, SIBM Pune (Symbiosis International University)
Lavina Sharma, Assistant Professor, SIBM Pune (Symbiosis International University)

The critical role of a leader in has become more crucial than ever before in the era of fierce competition and the challenge to compete ethically. The first step towards being an effective leader is winning trust of the followers which can easily be done by building credibility at the personal level. Skills, capabilities, strategies and practices will be void without an understanding of the essential human hopes and aspirations that connect leaders to the followers. It is in this light that this paper explores the possibility of following the Eightfold path of Buddhism for a balanced leadership through wisdom, ethical conduct and mental
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Spirituality at Work Place – An Emerging Template for Organization Capacity Building?
N.R.Aravamudhan, Research Scholar, Anna University, Chennai
R. Krishnaveni, Professor, PSG Institute of Management, Coimbatore

Workplace spirituality is gaining traction in recent times. Though the confluence of age-old mysticism and good old capitalism sounds bit anachronistic, this inter-play has become a subject of fascination for both practitioners and academicians atleast from the perspective of workplace spirituality. Workplace spirituality is increasingly becoming a matter of interest to organizations because of the host of benefits it offers. Workplace spirituality seeks to build the capacity at two levels i.e. individual and organization. At individual level, it seeks to nurture the creativity, imagination and intuition besides improving the trust and honesty. At organization level, workplace spirituality holds out potential to improve organization performance. This paper looks in to the reasons for the surge of interest in spirituality at work, spirituality dealt in the realm of wisdom traditions, approaches to implementing workplace spirituality and the link between spirituality and individual and organizational outcomes.
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Life Satisfaction – What Does it Really Mean to Indians?
Madhuri Modekurti-Mahato, Assistant Professor, Usha Martin Academy, Ranchi, Jharkhand
Pranab Kumar, Associate Professor, Department of Management, Birla Institute of Technology (Deemed University), Lalpur, Ranchi, Jharkhand

Globalization, customer-oriented bureaucracy, changing lifestyle patterns and erratic demographic changes have all laid foundation to the modern contemporary society of India. In order to account the changing contexts, most research studies conducted under the organizational context have explored either the job satisfaction construct or the role related aspects. This limits the earlier studies to the work domain alone. This study has tried exploring the Life Satisfaction construct, which in itself is comprehensive and inclusively measures both the work and non-work domains. The present study empirically examines the variables of Ideal Life, Excellent Life Conditions, Satisfied Life, Important Things Achieved in Life and Happiness with status quo for the services sector in India. A total sample of 411 employees has recorded their responses that were chosen across seven industries. The Study reveals that the female employees were found to possess excellent life conditions and a more ideal life than their male counterparts. While the men scored on higher satisfaction with life, higher achievement and were in relatively high spirits about their life. This study is phenomenal in the sense that it explored a rare construct for a developing economy which is still foreseeing a multitude of transitions.
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Workplace Spirituality and Toleration of Employee Expression – An Exploratory Study
A. Prince Jason, Research Scholar, Faculty of Business Administration, Sathyabama University, Chennai
S. Sudha, Associate Professor, Department of MBA, St.Joseph's College of Engineering, Chennai

Workplace Spirituality has become a basic need for every organisations and especially Information Technology (IT) organisations. Workplace Spirituality is not viewed as organized practices but it is the recognition of that taking place in the community of the organisation. This study is an effort to understand the factors of workplace spirituality. It also finds out the organisations' toleration of employee expression and the relationship between workplace spirituality and toleration of employee expression. The study was carried out by selecting five IT organisations in Chennai city, India. Primary data was used for the study and it was collected with the help of a structured questionnaire. The responses were collected and analyses were done based on the objectives to be achieved. The study revealed twelve factors of spirituality which was then grouped to three factors. It is also evident from the study that there is a positive significant relationship between workplace spirituality and toleration of employee expression.

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Leadership Styles of Bank Managers in Nationalized Commercial Banks of India
Ajay Jain, HOD-Department of Integrated MBA, SRM University, Modinagar, U.P.
Shikha Chaudhary, Research Scholar, SRM University, Modinagar, U.P.

Commercial banks are banks engaged in classic business of accepting deposits and giving loans as against merchant banking, where the primary responsibility is to help business by raising loans. NPA's in banks have reduced their profitability and goodwill in the eyes of customers. Leadership styles of Managers' in banks at various levels provide a sound background to the banking industry. Trait, behavioural and situational leadership studies, ability, dynamism, perceptions, attitudes of bank managers are helpful to manage problems in the banks and hence improvement in their performance. The study suggests that to adopt participative leadership style to emphasize state development by infusing at each level of management with a serve of belonging and involvement. Senior level managers should develop work place relationship, which is one of the critical skills, every leader in today's work environment and need to possess. Full Paper Request

Understanding Avnivesh for Karmic Model of Leadership Development
Anindo Bhattacharjee, Assistant Professor, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi.
Sandeep Singh, Associate Professor, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi.
Abhay Kumar Singh, MBA Student, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi.

This paper discusses the relevance of avinivesh which literally means the “fear of death” and the doctrine of karma in the context of developing leaders for the 21st century. It argues that avinivesh is the root cause of many decision-failures of leaders which have been
attributed reasons like narcissism, hubris, greed, etc in prior leadership research. It also tries to present the “doctrine of Karma” in a more universal sense towards explaining how avinivesh leads to a leadership vision infested with fear, anxiety and insecurity which ultimately manifests as business and economic uncertainty threatening the perpetual existence of the organization or institution in particular.

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