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Purushartha JournalAbstract of Published Papers in Purshartha Journal
Spiritual Wisdom of Taoism in Business: through the lens of interpretation realism in a Cisco end-to -end case study

Peter Sun San Wong QUT Business School, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point, Australia Philip Arthur Neck
Southern Cross Business School, Southern Cross University, Tweed, Australia
Bernard McKenna UQ Business School, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia

This paper explores how the amalgamated wisdom of East and West can instigate a wisdombased renaissance of humanistic epistemology (Rooney & McKenna, 2005) to provide a platform of harmony in managing knowledge-worker productivity, one of the biggest management challenges of the 21st century (Drucker, 1999). The paper invites further discussions from the social and business research communities on the significance of “interpretation realism” technique in comprehending philosophies of Lao Tzu Confucius and Sun Tzu [Lao/Confucius/Sun] written in “Classical Chinese.” This paper concludes with a call to build prudent, responsible practices in management which affects the daily lives of many (Rooney & McKenna, 2005) in today’s knowledge-based economy.

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Giving Voice To Values: Lessons from India, Lessons from Life

Mary C. Gentile, Director, Giving Voice To Values, Babson College, USA & Former Faculty Member, Harvard Business School

In this brief article, author explains some of the experience of India and life that played an
important role in framing and implementation of 'Giving Voice To Values' which is today a
globally recognized curriculum for values-driven leadership development.

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Four Pillars of Management Education
Sandeep Singh Associate Professor, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi

Management education is striving for relevance and legitimacy and business schools are often criticized for failing to produce skillful and responsible management professionals. This paper dwells deep into the reasons for that and posits that secular as well as sacred dimensions of management education are neither getting proper focus nor they are balanced in the way management education is given at business schools. For bringing the true character of management education at business schools, four pillars of management education which are education ethos, management soul, value-based, and corporate legitimacy are proposed in the curriculum and pedagogy. Management soul and corporate legitimacy constitutes the secular dimension of management education while education ethos and value-based form the sacred dimension.

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Mindfulness ,Wisdom and Leadership
Roberto Biloslavo, Professor, Faculty of Management

There is growing evidence of the fact that humankind is very close to the edge of the deep abyss. Lack of wisdom among corporate and state leadership is probably one of the most important reason why we are in such a threatened situation. In this paper, wisdom as a critical leadership trait and wisdom development according to a 4-dimensional model is presented and discussed together with mindfulness as a contemplative way to postconventional and even trans-conventional level of human development. Wise leadership based on Western scientific tradition and Eastern philosophical tradition is proposed as a new leadership model that is needed if we want to successfully respond to our current global crises.
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Transforming Businesses to Perform in the 21 Century
Sandeep Gupta, GM & Head Corporate Affairs, TCG Lifesciences Limited
N.K. Bishnoi, Associate Professor, Department of Management, GJUST, Hisar
Anindo Bhattacharjee, Lecturer, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi

Traditionally business has always been a support mechanism for societies to grow and evolve, but in the last 150 years (primarily 20th century) with corporatization of businesses the roles have got reversed with society transcending into becoming the support mechanism
for businesses to grow and expand. This brought about a radical change in the socioeconomic mindset of society. From the perspective of economic evolution there have been 4 waves of development. The first was the 'agricultural wave', the second 'industrial wave' which is still existing in some parts of the world, the third 'information wave' and lastly 'the wave of 'spiritual consciousness' which is unfolding in this 21st century. Each wave is based on new knowledge and it ushers in a new worldview - a paradigm. When new knowledge emerges, we revise our understanding of reality. This does not imply that the old knowledge was wrong; it only means that the old knowledge was partial and now it needs to be looked afresh and accordingly modified or supplemented with the new knowledge. This is an evolutionary process and societies including organization accordingly take necessary steps to survive in the new environment. Transformation is the only solution to ensure that we do not lose out on all the advancements made in the past and our march forward. While businesses are battling to find solutions to align to the requirements of the 21st century viz. inclusion of consciousness in all dimensions of human life including business; this paper proposes a transformation model for businesses to align themselves to the new emerging reality of the 21st century. The model integrates the modern management practices with the Indian ethos and focus on developing 'organizational consciousness' without disrupting the existing operations. The authors believe that 'business has to be done the business way, but the righteous way'.

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Why MBA Students Should Meditate
Paul Forster, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Hong Kong

This essay argues for the introduction of Buddhist mindfulness meditation practice in MBA education for the purposes of expanding the exploration of solutions to environmental problems. Meditation is already taught in many business schools, primarily for the purposes of stress reduction, leadership development and creativity. There are voluntary workshops and meditation programs available to business students at Harvard, Yale, Stanford, INSEAD and many other top MBA programs. Stress reduction is one positive side effect of a relaxed mind, but it is not the goal of meditation. Relaxation of the mind is an essential step in developing the concentration that can yield insight and wisdom. The ability to hold the mind still can reduce the anxiety that comes from a preoccupation with to-do lists, distractions, and busy-ness. But while learning to relax is valuable, it is merely the tip of the transformative potential of meditation. In this essay, I refer to meditation in the context of the Buddhist practice of meditation. Meditation lies at the heart of the Buddhist practice as the means to personal transformation. Buddhism has a very sophisticated psychology that takes a meditation practitioner through establishing a foundation of concentration, then developing mindfulness and insight with the aim of freeing the mind of its attachments and freeing practitioners from discontent.
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Happiness and Wellbeing for Sustainable Development
Purnima Awasthi, Assistant professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
Sanjay Saxena, Associate professor, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi

Personal well-being and happiness have been the focus of human concerns for decades. Bring intentional changes to sustain personal well-being in lives of people requires an understating of the multifaceted interacting formal, non formal, and informal institutional factors that influence human behavior. It has been considered as a founding stone of evolution of the great religions as well as inestimable local traditions and spiritual "pathways". The search of happiness is debatably the definitive motivating force of each and every action accomplished by individuals, either at individual or communities and national levels. Unfortunately we have not yet understood the meaning of happiness and its relationship to well-being, which is the ultimate force that may direct the path of happiness and sustainable behavior. Sustainable behavior satisfies our needs today, without diminishing the prospects of future generations to do the same. Which behaviors are the most damaging? Why don't we behave more sustainably, and what is the best approach to change? Presently there is no agreement on the nature of personal well-being and sustainable behavior, and almost all the proposed models have elements of subjectivity. Researchers have developed a novel collective ecosystem approach for constructing a basic health representation that may maintain strength across social, economical, environmental and cultural domains of societies to promote personal well-being. The collective ecosystem approach seems to be consistent with traditional values and provides a basis for personal conduct that may address the need to meet the century's major cultural and ecological challenges. The assumption is to be easily concerned with the natural and modified ecosystems. To arrive at a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, an individual must hold across main dimensions of human well-being such as physical, intellectual, social, emotional, and spiritual attributes. With the help of these attributes, scientists working directly on solving the problems pertaining to the ecosystem may utilize psychological findings that may be helpful in shaping environmental programs. Application of these attributes maintaining the well-being of individuals and community is described and the implications are discussed.
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Value -Based Leadershi p Princi ples: Importance in the Modern Technical Education
P. Hari Krishna Associate Professor in Civil Engineering & Faculty Advisor, Center for Value Education National Institute of Technology, Warangal, India

This paper aims to reiterate the importance of values in leadership development and the importance of value education in technical institutions. Technical institutions have a role to play in not only providing quality technical education but also to make students aware of the value systems so that they could demonstrate value-based leadership in their professional life. Few qualities that are essential for value-based leadership are discussed in the paper and it is proposed that they need to be instilled in students who are studying at technical institutions.

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Does Spiritual Awareness Foster Managerial Values? - A Quizzical Survey Conducted on a Group of MBA Final Year Students in Botswana
V. S. Nanduri Founder and former Chairman, The Sathya Sai Central Trust of Botswana & Chairman, Nanduri Group of Businesses, Gaborone, Botswana
R. N. Mmereki Lecturer (Management), Faculty of Business, University of Botswana

In this paper the authors review various modern theories of Leadership and Management and observe that there are diverse views in Leadership theories while Management theory broadly remaining the same. All these theories are secular in their character, originating mostly in the west where material dimension is predominant. The Role of Spiritual connectedness and Consciousness in Leadership and Management is not to be found in these theories, though some ethical elements such as transparency, fairness and Corporate Social Responsibility find place in these theories. While accepting the fact that material dimension is important for material progress of humanity, the authors express the view that spiritual dimension is not to be ignored. Spiritual awareness and conscious practice of spirituality promotes and fosters values in all human beings in general and in particular, a valuable asset for Leaders and Managers. To verify this view, a Two-Quiz survey was designed and conducted on a group of 48 MBA final year students in the Faculty of Business, University of Botswana. The first quiz was to assess the spiritual awareness and the second Quiz was to assess Values in management. The numerical scores of spiritual awareness and Management values were analysed on a scatter plot with spiritual awareness as base, which indicated that the group as a whole showed a tendency of positive coefficient of correlation between these two variables. The results support the view of the authors who recommend that Spiritual Foundation with conscious spiritual practices is a factor to be considered in leadership and management training and development. A universal theory of leadership with spiritual foundation is presented in the concluding part of the paper.

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Value-Based Education and Teacher Education in Mauritius: Analysing the Pertinence of Value-based Education at School to Reconstruct Society
Somrajsingh Dhunnoo, Senior Lecturer and Head of Department of Special Educational Needs (SEN), Mauritius Institute of Education, Reduit, Mauritius
Vimala Adiapen, Lecturer, Department of Educational Administration and Management, Mauritius Institute of Education,
Reduit, Mauritius

Since independence in 1968, Mauritius invested massively in Education considering that its people are the major asset for development. However, despite economic success, Mauritius is vulnerable to market changes which brought its alignment to a globally competitive economy. Equally, a realignment of human resources constitutes the social infrastructure for a successful new economic agenda (MOEHR, 2008). This reinforces a revisit of education to vehicle the country's growth prospects in line with a knowledge society and an Indian Ocean hub. Government's impetus is to ensure that education is for all, as stated in the Education and Human Resource Strategy Plan (EHRSP, 2008). At the level of curriculum development, focus is on values and skills for the personal growth and critical thinking of children. In 2006, curricular reforms in pre-primary, primary and secondary education have been initiated (MOEHR, 2006). Stress is now laid on the child's whole development through knowledge about values, human rights and diversity in a composite culture. An integrated, inclusive and holistic approach is adopted in teaching and learning. Science components are integrated in Languages and values in Mathematics. Further, the national vision of education aims at empowering young people to become autonomous while maintaining moral integrity and sense of caring for the society members (MOEHR, 2006). To this end, schools will act as cornerstones of such a value-driven education. Paramount is the teacher's role in value-based empowerment of learners. Ultimately, the curriculum will play a key role in societal reconstruction. This paper analyses how far the Teacher Education programme at secondary level equips teachers with skills to deliver a value-based education in order to respond to the new curriculum and emergence of a new society. Qualitative data will help to discuss the evolution of education and the need for value-based education for social stability. To this end, the role of teachers as leaders and school leaders will also be analysed. Document analysis, questionnaires and interviews will gather data for the research which will pave the way for policy makers to include value-based education in teacher education programmes.

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