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Purushartha JournalAbstract of Published Papers in Purshartha Journal
Consciousness - the New Paradigm for Surmounting Global Management Crisis
Sri Sri Shuddhaanandaa Brahmachari, Founder-Lokenath Divine Life Mission

In creating this new World Order based on the fundamentals of Universal Law of Spiritual Oneness, the Management Sciences have to rise to the occasion, accept the responsibility, spiritualize the system and grow from within to manifest the infinite potentials of human excellence. This article embodies the principles of the ascended masters who realized the wisdom and enlightened the world. It is a tribute to their teachings and also an endeavor to fill the ethereal space with a positive note for the trying time ahead.
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Ancient Wisdom…A Paradigm Shift for Modern Management
Swami Satya Vedanta Osho Nisarga Foundation, Dharamshala

Corporations, educators, bureaucrats and all those who carry a heavy workload around the world are increasingly questioning the same paradigms of efficiency, goal achievement, control and analysis, hierarchy and authority for finding more human and wisdom oriented strategies. It is now being recognized that the mind management or the self management is central to managerial qualities and responsibilities. Wisdom from the ancient sources can be of immense help in gaining the required clarity for experiencing the joy of management. A New Manager with the help of wisdom and meditation can release blocked physical and emotional energy allowing one to attain greater health, inner peace and professional success. If one can spend money to learn tennis or golf from a renowned coach, why can't he pay it to someone who shows him the techniques of yoga, meditation, or such spiritual methods that help him experience peace, joy, and creativity? The problem is in the perception that spirituality is possible only through poverty. As such, though, spirituality has nothing to do either with poverty or affluence. It is a part of that hierarchy of needs - what Abraham Maslow calls the need for self-actualization. It is a reflection of the fact that even after having satisfied one's material and psychological needs one still feels certain emptiness. A human is essentially an unfinished product, incomplete. Spirituality opens up avenues to bring a completion, a sort of closure to one's evolutionary growth. It is a journey that leads to actualizing one's hidden potential. More we become aware of our basic paradigms, our perceptions, our insights which sustain our worldview, the more we take responsibility for those paradigms - examine, experiment with them for the larger individual and collective good. In human life 'being' affects our 'seeing'; what we see shows what we are; what we see, and what we are, affects what we do. Wisdom consists of life sustaining principles of awareness; they are the laws we need to follow to exist, to live, and to grow- materially and spiritually. They often gather dust, often disappear. They need to be brought out of oblivion.
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Spirituality: A key Factor to Achieve Sustainability Through the Empowerment of Compassionate/Altruistic Managers
Yamuna Sandrine Bonin, Research Associate, Department of Social Work, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
Rajiv Prasad, Associate Professor, School of Business, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore Campus

Economy has been largely discussed but its essence is scarcely embodied in management. Its etymology means dharmic management with the main idea of using sparingly, taking the right share. Actual economic paradigm, lifeblind and greedy, is contradictory with these dharmic aspects. Green economy and responsible practices are also showing limitations to achieve sustainability. They are not in tune with the need to reduce material throughput as expressed by the Club of Rome 40 years ago and advocated by steady state economists and degrowth movement. A sustainable paradigm of management clearly needs to affirm its responsibility towards society and recognize the central role of nature. Four sustainability principles have been scientifically defined, based on laws of Nature and Physics. In such a challenge, only spiritual values can help. Spirituality which is positively associated to individual and organizational well-being certainly brings more righteousness and altruism through life interconnectedness, vision, and compassion. It indicates the way to material reduction with values such as non- violence, non-acquisitiveness and contentment. Indian tradition prescribed the balancing of four purusharthas - dharma, artha, kama & moksha - as an ideal way of directing oneself which automatically led to an ethical life, both individually and collectively. It is perhaps time to have a re-look at this model in order to draw lessons for modern management. Even though this new paradigm seems utopian, there is a potential to empower compassionate/altruistic managers. Spirituality may strengthen managers on certain life skills such as decision making, empathy, coping with emotions and stress. A recent study has shown that students who are highly spiritual and religious have a better perception of their psychological, social and cognitive skills. This potential needs to be studied more thoroughly to identify how spirituality is creating favorable circumstances to achieve sustainability.
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Our Conditioned World
Paul Forster, Adjunct Associate Professor, Division of Environment and Division of Management Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

Consumption is the product of a lifetime of conditioning. Conditioning is very powerful. When our conditioned habits aggregate into organizations, institutions and culture they harden in our minds and become solid, real and immutable stories. For those living inside the stories it's almost impossible to envision a world operating under different rules. In business, we have created stories about market growth, market share, competition, globalization, efficient supply chains, short product life cycles, competition, continuous economic growth, etc.. These are the stories that drive our business paradigms. Our propensity to truck, barter and trade in a world of finite resources is leading to the logical outcome of depleted resources, lives of unsatisfied insatiable accumulation, disastrous poverty for the majority, and devastation of the gifts of our planet. This essay examines how our business paradigms aren't cast in stone but socially constructed artifacts. And that they create a web of conditioning that touches many parts of our lives. Assumptions about the natural environment are buried in our business paradigms of mass production and consumption. We discuss how awareness of our conditioning, briefly using the lens of Buddhist dependent origination, is a first necessary step towards constructive change in business practices.
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Transformation of Collective Spiritual Consciousness using Information Technology – The Case Study of Radiosai
S.Sathyanarayanan, Information Scientist, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Brindavan Campus
N.Sivakumar, Assistant Professor, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Brindavan Campus

The 21st century has become globalized due to adoption of Information Technology (IT) in every sphere of life. It has revolutionized communication and commerce and interconnected the globe. It has given humans the ability to connect with people around the globe. But the misuse of IT has also alienated humankind from its own true nature, because humans are essentially spiritual beings. Due to immense potential, IT has the ability to enable the spiritual transformation of people to ensure that their actions are righteous and hence bring them closer to God and nature. One of best examples of spiritual transformation through IT is that of 'RadioSai', an integrated spiritual portal. It has played a valuable and irreplaceable role in the spreading the Spiritual message of Bhagavan Sri Sathya Sai Baba, worshipped by millions of people throughout the world. RadioSai is now a lifeline for many people to connect to their master and to their inner spiritual self. The endeavour of the current paper is to study the impact of RadioSai on the Spiritual transformation of people across the world. The paper highlights how IT can be used for achieving spiritual transformation of the human beings spread across the globe by impacting the collective global consciousness. The paper is structured as follows. After discussing the history of RadioSai, the paper details the various aspects of RadioSai and gives the various technical details explaining the use of IT in RadioSai. Later, the paper analysis in detail the impact of RadioSai and finally gives lessons for IT managers for spiritually purposeful use of information technology.
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For Creating Unity and Oneness in Organizations: Understanding Oneness Behaviors in Organizations from the Perspective of Integrative Self-Knowledge and Organizational Citizenshi p Behavior
Duysal Askun Çelik, Assistant Professor, Istanbul Bilim University, Turkey

For healthy and effective organizations, there has to be a unity in diversity which is sometimes termed as "Oneness", characterized by a mysterious spiritual and emotional bond between people (Hung, 2006). Related to Oneness principle, there is actually no "Other" but "We". In the same line of thought, when you see no other, you help and support the correspondent no matter what his or her position/race/religion. As a concept, Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) seems to have common attitudinal and behavioral aspects (Organ & Ryan, 1995) such as Consideration of others and Altruism. There have been many attempts to understand OCB from dispositional and attitudinal perspectives. Usually, the personality factors have been argued to be indirect contributors to the construct. Instead, attitudinal contributors such as job satisfaction and commitment have been found to have a strong link. In this study, a personal attitudinal domain, integrative self-knowledge (Ghorbani, Cunningham, & Watson, 2010) which is said to include "an ongoing sense of self-awareness" and "stable mental representations" (Robins, Norem, & Cheek, 1999; as cited in Ghorbani, Watson, & Hargis, 2008) will be explored. As a feature of positive psychology, Ghorbani et al. (2008) argue that selfknowledge research has promise in promoting an understanding of psychological wellbeing across cultures. A psychologically healthy individual is said to be integrated in mind, body and soul; with no energy leakage from any disintegrated parts. Therefore, integrative self-knowledge will be treated as an independent variable regarding its predictive value for OCB and also the exploratory dependent variable Oneness Behavior in a sample of working population from different industries. By exploring the link between these concepts, this study will try to explain how individual variables contribute to the organizational effectiveness and healthiness as a whole, including our Global situation. As Ritchlin (2010) points out: "From the perspective of the global mind, our collective historical moment brings us to a bifurcation point of great magnitude and import that calls upon the inner integrity of each of us-our "inner sage"-to respond with care to the subtlest beginnings of what is to come".
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Role of Spiritual Leaders in Conflict Management: A Historical Perspective
Jannatul Maoa, Department of World Religions & Culture Dhaka University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Frequently the word "management" is known to relate to the running of economic enterprises. But this is too narrow and prejudiced view, especially when we are dealing with a comprehensive and deep theme as the role of Spiritual Leadership in conflict management. There is a famous Sanskrit dictum: "svarat samrat bhavati" which means one who can rule or govern oneself can also direct others well. That is, the ideal leader exercises leadership upon him or her in the first place. This requires bringing forth the hidden Spirit being of the leader into the forefront of his or her personality. Then only he or she becomes authorized to lead others. Such capability is more basic than professional competence and skills. The latter are essential but secondary. The legendary (puranic) kings of ancient India have been called Rajarshi that means a king plus a sage. In this holistic model, the schism between the secular and the sacred vanishes (the king is the secular aspect, rishi the sacred). In managing the conflicts of modern world we are in needed this type of Spirit-Centered Leaders. An expanded interpretation of spirituality in conflict management is proposed below. While management will be correctly and wisely understood as such a process for running our affairs this is consciously founded on this continuity right through the entire cosmic chain. Only then Spirituality in management can turn into a sensible and fruitful engagement. In the present article we will try to find out the actions of our spiritual leaders in conflict management from the historical perspective.
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Role of Teachers and Educational Institutions in Value Based Higher Education
Sanjay Banerji, Professor Emeritus, Amrita School of Business, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Coimbatore
Rajiv Prasad, Associate Professor, Amrita School of Business, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Coimbatore

Greed is believed to be at the root of the current crisis. Modern education system's failure to impart ethical values is partly to blame. Spiritual principles of selfless service hold the promise of a solution. Teachers can play a crucial role. They have an opportunity to help shape the character of students. This paper examines the teaching - learning process from Indian spiritual perspectives, to try and find some potential solutions for the current moral crisis. We discuss teacher-student relationship in an institutional setting with the case study of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, a university founded and guided by the great spiritual and humanitarian leader Mata Amritanandamayi Devi. Amrita follows practices inspired by the exalted values of the rich Indian spiritual tradition like joint prayer by the teachers and students before starting the classes, teaching lofty human values through formal courses, inculcating values like service to the mother land, mankind and nature, with love, trust, tolerance and humility. We report on the methodologies adopted and the results achieved so far. We also cite other practices like "Stilling the Mind" taught by Prof. S K Chakraborty at IIM Calcutta and offer the authors' experience in following these practices. According to Mata Amritanandamayi, the Chancellor of Amrita University, the solution lies only in two words: "Love and Serve". In her message on the World Peace Day (September 21, 2004), she said, "Amma has a desire that everyone in the world should be able to sleep without fear, at least for one night. Everyone should be able to eat to his fill, at least for one day. There should be at least one day when hospitals see no one admitted due to violence. By doing selfless service for at least one day, everyone should help the poor and needy. It is Amma's prayer that at least this small dream be realized." We believe that such teachings from spiritual leaders have a lot to offer the modern world. Teachers can play a significant role by embracing these values. Finally, we look at global and national norms of teaching excellence, and relate them with the above thoughts.

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Sustainable Model of Organizational Management in the Perspectives of Islam: A Study based on Jamaat-e-Islami Hind
Noufal P.K, Human Welfare Foundation, New Delhi
Sharnas Muthu Thacharupadikkal, Research Scholar, Department of Social Work, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

In pursuit for success leaders have been searching for effective management theories and practices. They tend to explore both modern management style and ancient management experiences and ideologies that exist in the history. The recent management crises call for sustainable models based on ethical management practices and paradigms which bring peace and prosperity across the world. Islam being the comprehensive code of life for the betterment of humanity provides principles and practical guidelines in this matter Islamic perspectives of management encompass the dimensions of belief in Allah (God) and the motivation of which is not restricted to monetary and material incentives but includes spiritual incentives. The major concern of Islamic management is to provide new ways and means of problem solving and better allocation of resources. Islamic school of management has existed in practice since the beginning of Islam and it had outperformed other school of management during the heights of Islamic civilizations. Historically unique success of Prophet Muhammed induces Micheal Hart to consider him as the most influential man in history. Management is defined as getting things done through others. The Holy Quran Confirm: …..we raise some them above others in rank, so that some may command work from others…. (43:32). This encompasses the philosophy and wisdom of Islamic management. Man being social, needs organizations for the achievement of goals. And the success is dependent on quality of management following a common culture. This culture is based on some values and beliefs such as justice, reward, participation, dignity, unity of purpose, responsibility and accountability, efficiency, mercy etc. Jama at E Islami Hind is an organization existing since 1948 based on the Islamic ideology. Its structure is based on its belief which follows the concept of unity of all mankind, the purposefulness of man's life, and universality of way of life. Its culture and structure are paradigm for organizational management on the basis of its philosophy. The present paper aims to reveals the Islamic principles and approach to management. It explores how these principles were applied in the journey of Jama at E Islami Hind. And will also help to provide a sustainable model of management for surmounting management crisis.

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Approaching Decision-Making from a Dharmic Perspective
V.Adinarayanan, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
V.Smrithi Rekha, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

The world is witnessing unprecedented crises on many fronts of human endeavor like economic, political, environmental, social and personal. These crises are, in one sense, an effect of decisions made individually or collectively either in the recent past or bygone eras. These decisions arise from the decision-making models followed, which in turn are rooted in the perspective offered by the culture of the land. Now researchers and thought leaders are revisiting the decision models with the aim of making them more holistic, i.e. as multidimensional as possible. We see how decision-making models have evolved from simplistic uni-objective models to multiobjective and multivariate models that include uncertainty as an underlying assumption. Given this context, in our work we approach decision-making from a dharmic perspective. By dharmic we mean the Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Sikh traditions. We explore how the perspective adopted impacts decision making and the consequences of the decisions made. We have followed a multi-pronged approach. Initially, we critique the western models of decision making. In doing this we observe that the dharmic way of decision-making presupposes the features of multidimensionality and uncertainty. In other words, these features are endogenous to the dharmic way of decision-making whereas they are exogenous in the western way. In addition to this, the dharmic way recognizes how the qualities of the decision-maker impact the decisions and hence lays emphasis on the refinement of these qualities. For instance, the idea of citta-shuddhi (purification of consciousness) is considered important. Based on the critique and comparison we propose a model of decision-making inspired by dharmic perspective, specifically, from Indian philosophy and psychology. We base this model on aspects like embodied knowing, collectivity, reflection and contemplation and application of tarka (debate) and vada (discussion). The intended benefit of our work is to understand the gaps in the current decision-making processes that lead to crises. We achieve this by changing the perspective from western to dharmic. This leads to the refinement of the instruments of decision-making that will impact collective well-being.

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Spirituality , a Path to Inner Culture: A Pragmatic Response to Contemporary Waste Land
Veerendra Kumar Mishra,Research Scholar, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
Santosh Kumar, Research Scholar, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

The diachronic history of epistemic formation and discourse creation has inextricably and inexorably embedded into the changing economic condition of the contemporary reality. In fact, the entire epoch of late nineteenth century to mid twentieth century has been one of the periods of a great political and economic turmoil and upheaval. The unprecedented history of imperialism, dictatorship, materialism along with unsurmounting capitalism has brought in a great panorama of futility and anarchy which has become the history of the contemporary world that is further espoused by Darwin through the survival of the fittest by muting the words of Kropotkin's principle of mutual aid. The contemporary system of capitalism has been brought in as an antithesis to feudal economy and it has given rise to the phenomena of Utilitarianism. The entire philosophical apodosis of Utilitarianism provides us with different forms of looking at reality and human life- existence. The paper meticulously looks into the uncanny and inscrutable yet a remarkable relationship between capitalistic growth and spiritual waste land and cultural decay as has candidly been avered by one of the remarkable poets, T.S. Eliot. He in his The Waste Land (1922) articulates: Here is no water but only rock Rock and no water and the sandy road …Sweat is dry and feet are in sand …Here one can neither stand nor lie nor sit. (Lines 330-340)

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Corporatism: the Islamic Model
Ali Abu-Rahma, Associate Dean, Graduate Studies, Abu Dhabi University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
Khadijah Abu-Rahma, Faculty, Abu Dhabi University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

What is corporatism? In the current global climate, world leaders and ordinary people alike are asking themselves this question. In light of the global financial crisis in 2008 and, more recently, the worldwide protests against major corporations, individuals across the globe are demanding solutions for a problem that is not easily defined. This conceptual paper will define and discuss the theory of corporatism, it's evolution to the current climate, the social ills it has spurred, and introduce an Islamic Corporate Model. The conceptual model would, if implemented, solve many of the challengesaffecting the world due to current immoral business practices. Too often religion is immediately disregarded as a source of knowledge and inspiration for solving modern-day problems. This paper seeks to show, discuss, and explain how Islam serves a practical purpose in all aspects of business life and how integrating the proposed modelwould benefit the global society. This paper intends to present a framework which canbe practically applied and provide accessibleanswers to the growing problems of business immorality.

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