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Purushartha JournalAbstract of Published Papers in Purshartha Journal
Moral Economy in Global Perspective: Protestant Christianity , Confucianism , Islam and Hinduism
Barbara A. McGraw, Professor of Social Ethics, Law, and Public Life and Director of the Center for Engaged Religious Pluralism
Saint Mary's College of California, USA

A religio-cultural perspective underlying capitalism in the U.S., which is found in a distorted understanding of individualism originally rooted in Calvinist Protestantism, provides a theological justification for a winner-take-all economic system that influences global economic policy-makers. This perspective can be compared to and augmented with religio-cultural perspectives grounded in the world religions, which provide insights for a better understanding of the individual (Protestantism; Hinduism), the importance of valuing affective relationships (Confucianism), the justice of fair economic distribution (Islam), and the sacredness and interconnectedness of all of Nature, including human beings (Hinduism).

The inclusion of such wisdom contributes to a more robust conversation on the global level about what values economic policies should serve and suggests policy imperatives. Such contributions reorient current assumptions and therefore could contribute to the development of global economic policies that are more responsive to the needs of individuals, families, communities, societies and planetary well-being, and less focused on justifying the accumulation of wealth by the powerful.

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Christian 'Vocation' and Confucian 'Tianming' Negotiating the Boundaries of Transcendence and Immanence in International Business Ethics
Dennis P. McCann, Professor Emeritus, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, GA, USA & Director, Research Institute on Business Ethics Case Studies, Center for International Business Ethics (CIBE),University of International Business and Economics (UIBE), Beijing, China

Because the topic of transcendence and immanence and their relationship is so vast and highly abstract, I have chosen to make a comparison of two terms, Christian "vocation" and Confucian "tianming," both of which seem to illuminate concretely how transcendence and immanence are related in their respective contexts. While Christian vocation discourse may seem to represent one extreme of Divine transcendence, and Confucian tianming discourse may seem equally extreme in conveying the logic of immanence, there is considerable overlap between the two - or so I will argue in this paper. There are significant patterns of immanence in Christian vocation discourse and conversely significant indications of transcendence in Confucian tianming. Furthermore in their respective intellectual traditions, the two terms have been progressively universalized, so that Christian vocation no longer symbolizes a religious life withdrawn from the world, and Confucian tianming no longer can be regarded as exclusive to the Emperor as "tianzi" or Son of Heaven. To be sure, the ultimate meaning of each term depends on the reality of God in Biblical religion, on the one hand, and the significance of Heaven in Chinese culture, and there are irreducible, non-negotiable differences between these two.

Nevertheless, there is a degree of overlap that remains very promising for clarifying the basis for a universal humanism whose emergence in a Global Ethic is one of the defining characteristics of our time. I hope to show the promise of this emerging consensus about the ultimately spiritual presuppositions regarding our common humanity and its importance for the field of international business ethics. Beginning with Max Weber's seminal work on The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904), the significance of Christian vocation discourse for business ethics within a capitalist political economy has been commonly recognized. The burden of my paper is to show that an ethic of "tianming" might be equally significant in a Confucian perspective on international business ethics. Without a solid foundation recognizing a depth-dimension to human nature, programs of business ethics will not succeed in having a positive impact on the ways in which we can and must do. This paper is an expansion of the argument I sketched in an essay published in the Journal of International Business Ethics (Volume 3, Number 2, 2010), "Business Ethics in Christian Social Teaching and Confucian Moral Philosophy: Two Ships Passing in the Night?" Major portions of the argument had also been presented previously in an unpublished essay, "Business as a Vocation: A Catholic Contribution toward a Global Ethic?" a paper I presented to the 5th International Symposium on Catholic Social Thought and Management Education, Bilbao, Spain, July 15-18, 2003.
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Leadership and Afflictions of Mind
Sandeep Singh Associate Professor, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi
Anindo Bhattacharjee Lecturer, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi

Leadership in the context of business organizations is complex and has been an important field of study. This paper is concerned with finding the reasons for success and failures in business leadership position. It has been explained that the major cause of leadership failures lies in the presence of afflictions in the mind of the leader which acts as the obstruction in performing the leadership role to perfection. These mind afflictions are the negativities that directly or indirectly affect the required functioning and often lead to leadership failures.
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Globalization , Mindfulness and Community
Lois Hecht Oppenheim Professor and Chair, Political Science American Jewish University, USA

This paper will focus on how we might use mindfulness to create a more just and environmentally sustainable global system. The current neoliberal economic model of globalization is based on a conception of human behavior as self-interested individualism. It assumes, despite striking evidence to the contrary, that what is good at the individual level leads to an optimal societal outcome. The recent global downturn and the growing income disparities both within and among nations indicate that this approach has failed to bring prosperity and harmony to the global community, while, at the same time, threatening the natural environment. Heterodox economist critics of the neoliberal model, including Joseph Stiglitz, Amartya Sen, John Grey, and Ha Joon Chang, have criticized the current system as hurting the poor and have offered recommendations on how to reform the global system. Building on this, it is evident that any model of globalization must start from a different conception of humans -- as equal, spiritual beings, living in an interconnected world. To fully realize this concept will require a shift of thinking; it is here that the concept of mindfulness can be utilized. The practice of Mindfulness reminds us of our connection to all living things and to nature, thereby reinforcing our sense of common humanity and our role as stewards of the earth.

Utilizing Mindfulness in the political arena raises important questions. How might this concept be applied in diverse cultural settings around the globe? Here we might begin by asking if mindfulness exists more commonly in cultural non-western settings than in the west, and to what extent it might serve in counter pose to the valuing of short-term profit maximization. Turning to the heterodox economists' recommendations for institutional and regulatory reforms, we ask: does the journey of acting differently at a political level start with the individual, or should we focus on reforming shared practices and institutions through Mindfulness? Can mindfulness create a new kind of political discourse and global decision-making? The paper will explore these issues and offer some paths for future globalization.
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Spirituality as a Solution for Global Management Crisis
Krishna Kant Bajpai General Manager (Systems), School of Management Sciences, Varanasi
Shardul Chaubey Reader, School of Management Sciences, Varanasi
Avinash C. Supkar Reader, School of Management Sciences,Varanasi

Many believe that presently the world is facing turbulent times owing to faulty management practices that have been followed in last few decades. There is no denying fact that the world is suffering from management crisis. Spirituality as a solution for the global management crisis needs introspection for more clarity. School of Management Sciences, Varanasi had organized an International Conference on 'Spiritual Paradigm for Surmounting Global Management Crisis' in February, 2012 to explore the role of spirituality in overcoming the global management crisis. During the conference views were taken from eminent people to get insights into the subject. In this article views presented are of Rev. Patrick McCollum who is Wiccan minister & presenter on Pagan topics and a world-renowned activist for human rights, social justice, and pluralism; Prof. M.J. Xavier who is Director of IIM, Ranchi; and Prof. P. Krishna who is Secretary, Krishnamurti Foundation, Varanasi; and Dr. S.A. Dave who is currently the chairman of Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy and is also the former chairman of SEBI & UTI.
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Achieving Sustainable Consumption through Spiritual Practices
Saroja Subrahmanyan Chevron Associate Professor, Marketing School of Economics and Business Administration, Saint Mary's College of California, USA
Stephen Gould Professor of Marketing Baruch College, CUNY, New York City, NY 10010, U.S.A.

In a world strapped for resources, sustainable consumption (SC) involves a set of practices aimed at well-being for all. Spiritual practices such as yoga can both drive and inform SC in terms of making links to one's own everyday consumption. Such practices have already made a difference in the health and medical fields. However, they have far more benefits than the maintenance of physical health. Many spiritual methods have well established frameworks and methods to help individuals develop both their inner selves as well as their relationships with others. Authentic practice of yoga is one such method. In this paper, the authors of the study, who are long time practitioners in the yogic and Buddhists traditions, develop a model based on holistic yoga teachings and show how it can be used to make more mindful decisions and thus drive sustainable consumption behaviors. They also provide additional triangulation perspectives on the practices of spirituality and sustainability through their own personal introspective reflections and suggest future research directions in this area.
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Role of Spiritual Science in Leadership and Management
Swami Shashankananda Secretary Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, Morabadi, Ranchi

The success of an Organization depends upon two factors (1) Leadership and (2) Management. Success is doubtful without an excellent Leadership and Management. Modern Management talks of managing 5 Ms i.e. Man, Material, Machine, Money and Marketing. Here by managing man we mean to manage others. Spiritual science of management leads to Self management before managing others. MAN is not matter but living Conscious being. Even a worm is better than a machine. We are to go deeper to analyse our Self and identify different dimensions of Man. What a great strength will be released when we would come to know about the real self. We can then become the master of the senses, mind and intellect. Only such people can supervise, lead and manage and become Total Quality Man. By Total Quality Man means perfection at physical (healthy physical body and different limbs), mental (perfect sense organs, unpolluted concentrated mind), intellectual (Undisturbed, balanced, sattwik intellect), social (socially awakened citizen), and spiritual (believes in One divinity in all-beings) level.
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Taj Values & Ethos: Interaction with Mr. P.K.Mohankumar
Krishna Kant Bajpai General Manager (Systems), School of Management Sciences, Varanasi

On 26th November, 2008, an extraordinary event changed the course of life for many people. That day the world saw two extremes of human emotions and responses. At one end the terrorists who mercilessly killed and maimed ordinary citizens, and on the other some ordinary heroes, who sacrificed their lives, to save fellow human beings. Some such ordinary heroes were at the Taj. During the onslaught on the Taj Mumbai, 31 people died and 28 were hurt, but the hotel received only praise the day after. Its guests were overwhelmed by employees' dedication to duty, their desire to protect guests without regard to personal safety, and their quick thinking. Restaurant and banquet staff rushed people to safe locations such as kitchens and basements. Telephone operators stayed at their posts, alerting guests to lock doors and not step out. Kitchen staff formed human shields to protect guests during evacuation attempts. As many as 11 Taj Mumbai employees-a third of the hotel's casualties-laid down their lives while helping between 1,200 and 1,500 guests escape.

Heroes like 24-year-old banquet manager, Mallika Jagad and her colleagues, who were assigned to manage the event in a second-floor banquet room, saved all the guests in the banquet room. Forty-eight-year-old Thomas Varghese, the senior waiter at Wasabi, the upscale Japanese restaurant, saved every single guest and staff in his restaurant, but he never did get out. The terrorists gunned him down as he reached the bottom of the staircase. Karambir Singh Kang, the Taj Mumbai's general manager, who lost his wife and two young children who were in a sixth-floor suite, where the general manager traditionally lives. Kang led the rescue efforts until noon the next day.

What went into making these professionals, who demonstrated motivation, dedication, sincerity, desire to serve and ownership of the highest order, beyond their call of duty? What was the DNA of these ordinary heroes? To have some insight into what goes into making such professionals and to know more about the Tata philosophy and guiding principles, that made the Taj one of the most loved and revered brands in India and in the world;

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Time Management: An Insight with Indian Perspective
Sarvesh Satija Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS), Pilani Campus, Pilani, Rajasthan (India)
Preetika Satija Birla Balika Vidyapeeth, Pilani, Rajasthan (India)

Human beings have made this world a glorious place to live in at the cost of indulging himself without the least restraint in a world haunted by the twin demons of speed and complexity. Faced with ever increasing demands on the limited time at his disposal, modern man sitting amidst a mountain of wealth and prosperity lives a life of worry, anxiety and dissatisfaction and often looks towards management gurus for solutions. Through this study, the researchers aim to gain deep understanding and insights into time- management and self- management, fascinating interplay between them and the broader Indian perspective on self-management. These aspects of self management and self- development have long been pointed out and highlighted by Indian scriptures and great spiritual masters. Moreover, our Indian Vedanta provides an exhaustive science of effective living by focusing on these aspects in subtle manner. It helps us to understand ourselves and the world.

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Mindfulness for Holistic Management
Sri Sri Shuddhaanandaa Brahmachari Founder, Lokenath Divine Life Mission

During my conversation with the organizers of the conference on the theme 'Spiritual Paradigms for Surmounting Global Management Crisis' at School of Management Sciences Varanasi, few questions were raised on mindfulness which I thought must be answered and shared through this article.

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