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Purushartha Journal
A Path to Altruistic Leader Based on the Nine Values of Indonesian and India Ramayana

Nur Fatah Abidin Department of History Education, Sebelas Maret University, Solo, Indonesia
Hermanu Joebagio Professor, Department of History Education, Sebelas Maret University, Solo, Indonesia
Sariyatun Professor, Department of History Education, Sebelas Maret University, Solo, Indonesia

This article is attempt to develop a theory and practices of altruistic leadership, this article is reconstructing the nine values of Indonesian Ramayana as a foundation in formulating a path to the altruistic leader. The authors found that Indonesian Ramayana contains nine leadership elements, encompassing: competency, ethical, charismatic, integrative, collaborative, knowledgeable, transformative, pluralistic and philanthropic. Those elements are divisible into four dimensions: self-dimension includes competency, ethical and charismatic; social dimension includes integrative and collaborative; transformational dimension includes knowledgeable and transformative, and altruistic dimension includes pluralistic and philanthropic. Those dimensions show that altruistic leader is consist of hierarchical and interrelated leadership elements. The path to altruistic leader consequently should start from the bottom side, which is the maturity of self-dimension, social-dimension, and transformative dimension to reach the altruistic dimension.
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Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Exploration

Naval Garg Administrative Officer, The Oriental Insurance Company Limited, Haryana, India

The paper aims to empirically explore the impact of six dimensions of workplace spirituality on three types of organizational commitment. Six dimensions of workplace spirituality used for the study are Swadharma, Lokasangraha, authenticity, sense of community, Karma capital and Krityagyata. Components of organizational commitment are affective, normative and continuance commitment. A sample of 541 employees working in various organizations was given a structured questionnaire. Correlations, regressions and Necessary Condition Analysis(NCA) were carried out. The paper has enriched the field of workplace spirituality by contributing to existing literature via adding one more construct of Indian spirituality i.e. Krityagyata. Paper concludes that workplace spirituality climate helps in promoting organizational commitment. NCA elicited necessity of various dimensions of workplace spirituality for healthy organizational commitment.

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Mindfulness based Sales Management
Anindo Bhattacharjee Assistant Professor, NMIMS, ASM School of Commerce, Mumbai, India
Rimi Moitra Assistant Professor, NMIMS, ASM School of Commerce, Mumbai, India
Amit Kumar Assistant Professor, NMIMS, ASM School of Commerce, Mumbai, India
Anand Vardhan Consultant, Business Salt Consulting, Mumbai, India

Markets are becoming increasingly dynamic and technology is being continuously seen as the main driving force behind effectiveness of businesses. Technology is no more the key differentiating factor especially in sales or selling. As a result, the view on responsibility of a salesperson, is undergoing a paradigm shift. In this paper, we would discuss the relevance of mindfulness in sales and would try to answer the question as to “how mindfulness can enhance the performance of salespeople and may lead to better sales leadership and management”. We intend to create a paradigm for developing better sales managers and more productive salespeople based on contemporary mindfulness based traits as well as practices. Salespeople possessing mindfulness as a trait would be termed as “Mindful salesperson” and the process of selling where mindfulness based practices are an integral part, would be broadly termed as “Mindful selling”. Thus on the basis of the notions of the east and west we create attention, awareness openness and acceptance as the corner stones of the Mindfulness Based Sales Management framework.

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Religious Affiliation and Bequest Behavior
Smitha Nair Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
Amrutha S. Department of Management, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
Gopikumar V . Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India Sandhya G. Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India

Bequest behavior is a highly delicate and complex subject which requires considerable attention by researchers across all disciplines including economics, sociology and psychology. Studying the motives behind bequests becomes critical not only from a socio-psychological perspective but also from a policy perspective. This paper attempts to explore the socio- economic reasons which influence the intention to bequest focusing specifically on the effect of religious affiliation. This study uses survey data from India to test the hypotheses drawn from the anthropology, sociology and consumer behavior literature using logistic regression technique. The results indicate that self-interest negatively impacts the probability of leaving a legacy. Surprisingly, the study finds evidence for negative relationship between religious affiliation and leaving a bequest. This study also reveals that unmarried women are less likely to leave a bequest. Unlike in the philanthropic literature, the research could not find satisfactory evidence of altruism and social norms driving bequest behavior among Indians.

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Factors Affecting Malware Attacks: An Empirical Analysis
Ajay Kumar School of Business Studies, Sharda University, Gr, Noida U.P., India
Nishikant Ojha Associate Professor, School of Business Studies, Sharda University, Gr, Noida, U.P., India
Nishit Kumar Srivastava Assistant Professor, Operations and IT department, ICFAI Business School, Hyderabad

It has been well proved that malware attacks results in a loss of wealth and security to individuals and organizations. So, it is of utmost importance to understand that how a person or an organization becomes a victim of malware attacks. To understand the issues affecting malware attacks an empirical analysis was carried out. Firstly, factors affecting malware attacks were identified and a model was proposed, subsequently SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) was carried out to validate the proposed model and finally, regression analysis was used to establish the importance of the identified factors.

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Leadership Role in Instilling Workplace Spirituality in Organizations
Ayatakshee Sarkar Research scholar, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, TISS, Mumbai, India,

Leaders are the role model of an organization and its members align to the vision of their leaders. Hence leaders have to be extra cautious in articulating their vision, exhibiting behaviors and ultimately leading their followers. A leader, engaged in self-interest can merely think of social benefits; their investment in knowledge and skill would be to meet economic goals only. Leader must, therefore, go beyond matters of economic importance and must engage in self-interest transcendence at workplace. Some workplaces could be less productive only because people cannot find a way to breathe their spirituality into work. But when spiritual people join workplaces that fit their expectations they will not only support their colleagues but will seek quality and instill creativity. Since leaders play a vital role in facilitating spiritual culture in workplaces, this conceptual paper is an attempt to understand patterns of behaviors exhibited aligning to the core spiritual values such as benevolence, generativity, humanism, integrity, justice, mutuality, receptivity, respect, responsibility, trust exhibited by a leader in three different roles as a selector, inductor and developer in an organization. I propose a model for the behaviors justifying each spiritual value in three different roles.

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Spirituality and Modern Day Life: A Conceptual Model

Adya Sharma Director, Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies, Symbiosis International University, Pune, India

Spirituality was not really a sought after research topic till a few decades back. Researchers started focusing on the same somewhere in 1980s and 1990s. Different researchers have given different reasons for the same. Over the years many definitions of spirituality have been formed and yet there is no consensus. The paper aims at providing a comprehensive view of different definitions and interpretations of Spirituality by researchers and examines the relation between religion and spirituality. Further the paper will also highlight the use of spirituality in some sectors and thereby combing the definitions, interpretations and implementation to make a conceptual model for “Influence of Spirituality on modern day life”. The integrative consolidated model combines the different sectorial research by finding a common link. The paper aims at providing a model which has a general route to use spirituality in life and yet can be customized as per needs of specific sector. The model contributes by introducing self-management and external management as two important constructs of spirituality. Harmony with internal and external environment are identified as two dimensions of spirituality.

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Stressful Experiences,Workplace Stress, and Type 2 Diabetes: Management of Diabetes
Purnima Awasthi Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, F.S.S., B.H.U., Varanasi. India

The present paper draws attention towards the common occurrence of daily life i.e., stress along with its relation and linkage with diabetes, which is no doubt reaching epidemic proportions. The paper throws light on the relation between stressful experiences and onset and control of diabetes. It focuses how stress might lead to diabetes and also increase the risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Also in various situations managing diabetes in itself becomes a stressful task and adds up more to added risk. Finally various stress management approaches are discussed in order to ensure proper management of stress so that the quality of life of an individual is not hampered to the extremes and it becomes manageable to cope up or combat with the harmful consequences of stress, which further aggravates or increases the risk of diabetes.

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The Impact of Corporate Governance Variables on Earnings Management in India
Raghuveer Kaur Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttrakhand, India
Ashu Khanna Assistant Professor, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttrakhand, India

The dawn of 21st century has marked the plunge of numerous colossal enterprises across the continent that not only quivered the business environment of economies but also shackled the investor confidence. This phenomenon which has been the reason for these losses is termed as Earnings management. A series of amendments paving way for stringent law to ensure better transparency and accountability have been put into practice to restrain earnings management. In India, in the year 2006 major corporate governance reform was introduced by making revised Clause 49 of listing mandatory. The Clause has a set of mandatory and non-mandatory guidelines. The present work has been taken to explore the relationship between the non-mandatory corporate governance variables as per revised Clause 49 (2006) variables and discretionary accrual a proxy of earnings management in Indian context. The study period is 2007-2014 and a sample of 209 BSE listed companies has been taken. These corporate governance variables are handpicked from the annual reports of 209 companies. In total 1463 annual reports are scanned for the purpose of extracting variables of this study. The study revealed that non-mandatory variables such as remuneration committee and independent directors along with control variables such as firm size are significant in reducing the instances of earnings management. The study fills the literature gap as empirical studies examining the relationship between earnings management and corporate governance in the Indian context are limited.

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Spirituality and Skill for Leadership towards Sustainable Management
Shardul Shankar Department of Management Studies, IIIT Allahabad, India
G. Srisha Anagh Department of Information Technology, IIIT Allahabad, India
AnurikaVaish Department of Management Studies, IIIT Allahabad. India

This paper discusses the skills and spiritual dimension in business ethics, leadership and sustainability management. Spirituality is understood as a meaning which connects people with all living beings and/or God/Ultimate Reality. In this sense, spirituality is a vital source in a socio-economic life. Whereas Skill is a derivation of education and talent, which leads a person to perform better and exert authority. The paper studies how skills and spirituality contribute to transforming contemporary management theories and practices. It discusses new leadership roles responsibilities that emerge for sustainability in business and shows how leaders can be inspired by skills and spirituality in a meaningful way.The concerns regarding this business issue has long existed, but it has been voiced with an increased urgency in recent years as a result of numerous business scandals, global financial crises, and a voluntary increasing unsustainable focus on market growth.To be true to this point of view, sustainability in management should help develop a mind-set where we are able to converge skill, spirituality and sustainable practices. Taking this point of view in addressing sustainability, management requires a more holistic perspective—one that interludes skills, spirituality and its relationship to leadership.

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